Als Quellen benutzt

Used as sources.

On Sunday, 13 Jul 2014, it was revealed that the C.I.A. had used more than a dozen German government employees in four ministries “as sources.” Also that there had been hacking attacks on the phones on members of the Bundestag’s N.S.A. investigation committee.

Although the Bundestag is in its summer recess, its N.S.A. investigation committee met on 15 Jul 2014. The heads of all three German intelligence agencies attended. Most of the meeting was secret.

The heads of the intelligence agencies praised their organizations for finding all these U.S. spies in the German government. The opposition said the spies were found accidentally and wondered how many more spies haven’t been found yet.

(Awls   KVELL en   ben OOTS t.)

Zeitungswissen nur

Only newspaper knowledge.

After investigating N.S.A. activities for several months, German federal public prosecutor Harald Range is said to be considering starting no prosecutions, neither for mass surveillance of all Germans nor for surveillance of Angela Merkel’s phones, because his office has neither documents nor witness testimony, “only newspaper knowledge” of the N.S.A.’s violation of German criminal law. Presumably requests for judicial assistance [Rechtshilfeersuche, letters rogatory] to U.S. authorities would remain unanswered. Spiegel, which broke the story of the N.S.A.’s years of listening to the chancellor’s cell phone, cited source protection and refused to hand over related evidence from the Snowden trove.

Süddeutsche Zeitung said Mr. Range’s deciding not to prosecute would upset some people in the federal government and in his own office.

The federal government is said to have sent Mr. Range an early signal that he had independence to investigate freely in this matter, when Justice Minister Heiko Maas and Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier agreed not to stop any investigations for foreign policy reasons.

S.P.D. and Green party politicians said they were upset by the decision to quit. The C.D.U. seemed to support it, saying they thought the matter should be dealt with by the Bundestag’s N.S.A. investigation committee and not by the federal prosecutor in Karlsruhe.

Update on 03 Jun 2014: The Süddeutsche Zeitung, NDR and WDR have heard that the decision was altered: Federal Prosecutor Range still will not investigate the U.S.’s massive spying but will do an initial investigation of their bugging of the chancellor’s phones. He is seeking the whistleblowers in his offices.

Update on 05 Jun 2014: What the federal prosecutor is investigating, geheimdienstlicher Agententätigkeit or “secret agent activity,” has a statute of limitations in Germany of five years.

Update on 04 Jul 2014: The federal prosecutor in Karlsruhe is investigating a U.S. spy caught in Germany’s foreign intelligence service.

Update on 09 Jul 2014: The federal prosecutor in Karlsruhe is investigating a U.S. spy caught in Germany’s defense ministry.

(TSIGHT oongs VISS en   noor.)

Big-Brother-Awards 2014

The Verein Digitalcourage has announced its 2014 Big Brother awards for the best violations of consumer data protection in the past year. The association posted English translations of each award announcement online, which is awesome.

Politics category
“The German BigBrotherAward in the Politics Category goes to the Federal Chancellery (Bundeskanzleramt) for their involvement in the NSA surveillance scandal and for their lack of defensive and protective action. One of the Chancellery’s roles is top-level supervision over the foreign agency, Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst, BND) and over the three federal secret services’ cooperations between each other and with other agencies in Germany and abroad. German secret services work closely with the US intelligence agency NSA, whose actions have violated international and human rights law, and with other secret services. The Federal Intelligence Service and their interior counterpart, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz), have participated with NSA surveillance measures, spying programmes and infrastructures. German governments, past and present, have failed to defend against crimes and violations of civil rights linked to mass eavesdropping and digital espionage. They have recklessly neglected to protect German citizens and companies subjected to industrial espionage from further hostile attacks.”

Transportation
“The Big Brother Award 2014 in the category Economy goes to MeinFernbus GmbH (approx.: My Long-Distance Bus, Ltd.) for obliging passengers to always show an official ID along with the travel ticket they booked online. This makes anonymous bus journeys impossible. MeinFernbus GmbH does not give any legal or other reasons why producing an ID should be necessary. There is the option to try buying a ticket in cash when boarding, but this entails the risk that the bus is fully booked and one cannot travel. Additionally, buying tickets on board is more expensive than booking them in advance via the Internet.”

Technology
“The BigBrotherAward in the ‘Technology’ category goes to the ‘Spies in our Cars’, which look over our shoulders wherever we drive, collecting data, and sometimes even uploading it to the ‘cloud’. It is difficult to name a culprit: car manufacturers cite legal requirements on the one hand, and on the other hand they point to third-party providers that offer services such as localisation and navigation to the driver. This BigBrotherAward also looks to the future: the planned European distress call system ‘e-Call’ will have to prove in practice that it really has been implemented in a way that respects privacy.”

Business
“The BigBrotherAward 2014 in the ‘Business’ Category goes to CSC Corp. (Computer Sciences Corporation). The company is currently working on commissions by 10 Federal German Ministries on security-related projects, such as the electronic identity card, the De-Mail project for exchanging legal electronic documents, and the nation-wide firearms registry. At the same time, the parent company functions as the external IT department of US secret services, and it has organised rendition flights to torture prisons for the CIA.”

Consumer protection
“The South Korean electronics manufacturer LG receives the Big Brother Award in the Consumer Protection category because the ‘smart’ TV sets they sell transmitted detailed information about what people were watching to the firm’s HQ in South Korea, via the Internet. With the help of such information, so-called metadata, one can find out the most intimate details about individual people. The LG devices thus invaded the private lives of unsuspecting people.”

The world of work
And the winner is: the utility RWE, for using surveillance software to measure the performance of its subcontractors’ call center employees. “This software can, without the employees’ knowledge, do complete, continuous recording of phone calls and onscreen actions.” [Spiegel.de]

Neowordisms prize: “Metadata”

Blame category honorable mentions
Honorable mentions in the blame category go to: Debeka; Contipark; the Wiesbaden spa’s parking garage operator/s [?]; church tax [on? to? into?] flat-rate withholding tax [?]; WhatsApp; Talents4Good; and recordings of phone conversations and the public perception thereof.

Julia and Winston Award (the Positive Prize)
“For the first time, we introduce a positive award this year. The ‘Julia and Winston Award’ was named after the ‘rebellious’ main characters in George Orwell’s dystopian novel ‘1984’, from which the ‘Big Brother’ is also taken. The award is to honour persons who have taken an extraordinary stand against surveillance and data collection mania. The award comes with an endowment of one million – not one million Euro, though.

“The award speech for the first Julia and Winston award is held by Heribert Prantl, senior editor and head of the interior politics section of Süddeutsche Zeitung.”

Heribert Prantl’s speech:

“The winner of the first Julia and Winston Award is Edward Snowden.

“In Berlin, the German parliament (Bundestag) has established a committee of inquiry to investigate the NSA scandal. It is strange that the majority of the committee do not want to invite the person who uncovered this scandal. The committe’s CDU/CSU¹ members talk about Snowden as if he had an infectious disease. And there is hardly any objection from SPD members. That is gross ingratitude.

“The man has already said all he has to say, the argument goes; so there is no need to question him again. That is premature consideration of evidence, which is forbidden in all areas of law and in the German parliament as well. Snowden offers critical evidence, as everyone knows. The real reason why nobody wants to invite him is this: Chancellor Angela Merkel fears a peeved and harsh reaction from her hosts during her US visit in May. That is more than just fainthearted. The Chancellor has sworn in her oath of office to protect the German people from harm. Protecting from harm – that entails taking action against the harm inflicted by the NSA. Instead, the German government acts as if that Snowden, not the US, was the injuring party.

“Edward Snowden is an enlightener. He uncovered the global US inquisition and had to take refuge from the Grand Inquisitor. Personally, he has gained no benefits from his whistleblowing, only disadvantages. The only benefit is for the integrity of the rule of law in Western democracies – well, it could be a benefit if those democracies used the scandal as an incentive to reign in their secret services.

“So Snowden is not just an enlightener, he is also a motivator. He deserves better than a shaky and temporary asylum in Russia. The Americans are pursuing him as if he was the reincarnated Bin Laden. But he is just a single refugee, a textbook case of a refugee. So how should, how must Germany act towards Edward Snowden? Most of all, with gratitude! Snowden deserves protection and support. He is a classic case of a refugee.

“We should, indeed we must give Edward Snowden a stable permit of residence in Germany. We should and must offer him safe passage. All this is legally possible. Instead, the politicians of our ‘grand coalition’ act as if the United States’ power were a legislative force. Germany needs enlightenment about the comprehensive US eavesdropping. Enlightenment is the way out of self-inflicted immaturity.

“Snowden’s actions may be punishable in the US, due to violations of US law; but what is truly criminal are the circumstances and the machinations that he is denouncing. Snowden has acted against US secrecy regulations. Does that make him a traitor? No. The people who call him a traitor have betrayed basic rights themselves. Snowden has given emergency aid to the democratic state under the rule of law.

“His actions deserve recognition from the judiciary and the state, in Germany as well as the United States. He has kickstarted a debate that will hopefully lead to the democratic state protecting itself from the threat constituted by the NSA attacks. He may not really need a German medal; that would not sustain him. But he needs protection and support.

“‘Unhappy the land that has no heroes!’ says Galileo’s scholar Andrea Sarti in Bertolt Brecht’s play. So America can consider itself lucky to have someone like Snowden. But Galilei’s response to Sarti is this: ‘No. Unhappy the land that needs a hero’. That is true as well.

“Snowden is a symbol for courageous resistance by an individual against a powerful state system. He is a tiny David that stood up against a super Goliath. Snowden has resisted, and he continues to do so until today.

“Resistance is a word that people associate with rebellion against a dictatorial regime. But resistance is also a necessity in a democracy, even under the rule of law. Resistance only has a different name in a democracy: it is called dissent, civil courage, standing upright – or simply, Edward Snowden.

“If dissent is penalised: dissidents hazard the consequences. They do so to instigate change, to eliminate deficits and injustice. Arthur Kaufmann, the late Philosopher of Law, once called resistance in a democracy ‘the small resistance’. This small resistance had to be offered ‘to make the large resistance unnecessary’. But sometimes this so-called small resistance is in fact a very large one. That is the case with Edward Snowden. His resistance fully involves the physical and psychological existence.

“Thank you, Edward Snowden.”

“¹ The CDU and CSU (Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union) are Germany’s major conservative parties. They are ‘sister’ parties, with the CSU operating in the Federal State of Bavaria and the CDU in the other 15 Federal States.”

(Beak   BRUZZ ah   ah vorts   tsvoat ow! zanned FIAT seine.)

Kanzleramtschef, ChefBK, Kanzleramtsminister

“Chief of the chancellory,” Angela Merkel’s chief of staff, whose duties include coordinating and controlling/monitoring Germany’s secret services as the boss of the federal government’s intelligence agencies officer [of the person with the job title Beauftragter der Bundesregierung für die Nachrichtendienste].

Update on 25 Jul 2013: After Bundeskanzleramtschef Ronald Pofalla testified secretly before the Parlamentarisches Kontrollgremium, the parliamentary committee that is pro forma in charge of Germany’s intelligence services, he made a statement to the press saying absolutely everything done so far by Germany’s spy agencies had been legit and in compliance with German law. Also that German data protection law had not been reinterpreted. Supervisory committee members from opposition parties (parties that were in the ruling coalition when the information exchange began between German and U.S. intelligence agencies, as far as we know so far) gave counterstatements to the press indicating they were not satisfied with Mr. Pofalla’s responses to their catalog of questions about the U.S.A.’s Prism program.

Amusingly, artists at one news show edited Mr. Pofalla’s sound bite into their report to begin just he was saying “This statement is clearly false…”

(KANT’s lah omts chef,   CHEF bay kah,   KANT’s lah omts minn iss tah.)

Ringtausch

A circular exchange.

Concept used to describe how intelligence agencies from countries in the Five Eyes alliance kindly spy on the other four countries’ populations so each can say they’re not spying on themselves. A Leftists party speaker used the term in the Bundestag discussion on the occasion of the first day of work for the Bundestag’s new N.S.A. investigation committee [NSA-Untersuchungsausschuss].

The American N.S.A. probably won’t send anyone to testify before this Bundestag committee. The eight members (six government, two opposition) will nevertheless try to find out what Germany’s intelligence agencies have been doing and witnessing, and how they’ve been cooperating. Like the U.S.A., Germany appears to have a parliamentary committee that is nominally in charge of its intelligence agencies but might be more of a powerless excuse that is not even fully informed: the Parliamentarisches Kontrollgremium.

(RINGED ow! sh.)

Doch drohnenfähige Handydaten!

Cell phone data are droneable after all!

Last summer Germany’s foreign intelligence service, the Bundesnachrichtendienst or BND, admitted they’d been sharing phone data with U.S. intelligence agencies for years but said it was okay because cell phone data couldn’t be used to locate people and something about the N.S.A. promised not to use German-supplied phone data to kill anyone. Regarding the first claim, whistleblowers from U.S. drone programs have now explained to reporters how phone data were used for targeting assassinations around the world.

One whistleblower, describing countermeasures persons of interest have taken to keep using phones while evading geolocation and how these countermeasures can deliberately or accidentally increase the drone strikes’ already terrible civilian casualties, called the U.S. drone programs “little more than death by unreliable metadata.”

Details from the article and online discussions included:
“Pods” on U.S. drones (and presumably on urban utility poles because this might be what police have been quietly installing in U.S. cities using Dept. of Homeland Security funds) can spoof cell phones into providing data and can vacuum information off wifi networks from altitudes of four miles. Telecommunications standards in some “countries of interest” make it possible for many users there to share data the U.S. uses to identify targets’ cell phones. Wireless “party lines” quietly shared by pools of low-income civilians increase the chances that countries indulging in drone assassinations will accidentally kill party line participants and their families and neighbors, or be tricked into killing their enemies’ enemies, such as by firing missiles at wedding parties or legislatures after someone hides a cheap phone there.

(Daw chh   drone nen fey igga   HEN dee dotten.)

Schwachstellen in Sicherheitsprodukte einbauen

“Building in vulnerabilities in security products,” one of several methods the N.S.A. and G.C.H.Q. used to unlock encryption methods previously thought secure, according to the Guardian.co.uk, NYTimes.com and ProPublica.org. When the Canadian company BlackBerry updated its encryption in 2009, for example, the N.S.A. cracked it in mere months, according to a Spiegel.de article headlined “Champagne!

These two large agencies and their partners in e.g. the Five Eyes alliance have also been benefiting from encryption cracking via supercomputers, targeted hacking committees, strange U.S. letters and court orders that forbid the ordered from ever mentioning the order, an N.S.A. Computer Solutions Center that “provided security testing” for tech products, subversion of international security standards used by developers but especially persuasion of tech companies, whose names remain most secret.

Tagesschau.de reported on 06 Sep 2013 that the “Bankenverband“—the name indicates an association of banks but the reporter did not define it more specifically—announced that N.S.A. employees and contractors can only view Germans’ online banking but cannot transfer money out of (“plunder”) their accounts. German consumers will not be reassured by this.

Brazil’s TV Globo on 08 Sep 2013 added to the list of snooped targets the international S.W.I.F.T. bank transfer network, the closed computer networks of “airlines, foreign governments, power companies and financial institutions” and the state-owned Brazilian oil company Petrobras, increasing fears of industrial espionage by the U.S.A. and its allies.

The Guardian.co.uk article on the targeted placement of back doors into encryption software was very angry about how vulnerable to criminals this makes everyone (called “the consumer and other adversaries” in one Snowden trove document). Weakening software causes people to commit crimes who wouldn’t normally have done so.

(Sh VOCHH shtell en   in   ZICHH ah heights prod OOK teh   EYE n bough en.)

Die Verharmloser

“The harmlessers.” Pejorative hurled in June 2013 at ruling-coalition German politicians who said the U.S.A.’s spying on domestic and international emails, phone calls, video chats, text chats and search histories, in addition to snail mail, in-house company computer networks, the ubiquitous traffic and security cameras in public spaces, and even medical, financial and toll records, is okay with them. Even if this data was used to track and kill people via extralegal drone assassination.

German media have also said the ruling coalition is “talking the N.S.A. problem small,” “veiling” and “down-moderating” it, using “placating” and “appeasing” language to angry voters, especially but not exclusively before the Bundestag election on 22 Sep 2013. Data protection officers remain unappeased, vociferously warning about these issues at their national meetings. Bundespräsident Joachim Gauck invited federal data protection officer Peter Schaar to discuss the problem and its implications at the presidential palace of Bellevue on 06 Sep 2013.

Spiegel.de reminds us the imbroglio includes tapping international fiber optic cables, forcing companies to give up their customers’ data, commissioning back doors in software and hardware advertised as secure and the N.S.A. and G.C.H.Q.’s ability to use brute computing force to break encryption. Presumably satellite communications aren’t immune either.

U.S. government intelligence agencies are also spreading this behavior around the world like an antidemocratic virus to friends, neutrals and foes alike as they share technology and illicitly-gathered information with allied intelligence agencies, pay telecoms and cable companies to codevelop snoop technology and render services and outsource much of their own sensitive work to private-sector companies. Non-allied countries will feel forced to invest in similar strategies as well. Companies are being perfectly reasonable if they decide to sell to everybody. Ignoring even light regulation sets a poor example and paves the way for disaster under bad leadership, anywhere in the world.

(Dee   feh HOM loze ah.)

Wirtschaftsspionage

“Economic espionage,” industrial espionage. June 2013 reports that Germany was the N.S.A.’s most-spied-on country in the E.U. created German misgivings that financial advantages might be being sought.

The Guardian.co.uk’s “heat map” for the NSA’s “Boundless Informant” surveillance system indicated only countries like Iran, Pakistan, Jordan, Egypt and India were being monitored more than Germany.

This fear was not alleviated by Süddeutsche Zeitung and Norddeutsche Rundfunk reporting on 02 Aug 2013 describing Snowden-trove British General Communications Headquarters docs from 2009. It listed U.K. telecoms that “assisted” G.C.H.Q. (with each company’s code name): Verizon Business (“Dacron”), British Telecommunications (“Remedy”), Vodafone Cable (“Gerontic”), Global Crossing (“Pinnage”), Level 3 (“Little”), Viatel (“Vitreous”) and Interoute (“Streetcar”); some of these telecom companies even developed software to help spy on their customers and were paid for that by G.C.H.Q. “For the good of the British economy” was a reason given in a G.C.H.Q. PowerPoint presentation for why these telecoms were selling their customers’ communications.

Update on 19 Jan 2014: ZDF heute journal reported the listening post atop the U.S. embassy in Berlin was indeed used for economic espionage: they were interested in the Chancellor’s opinions about the euro currency, for example.

In 2003, the company Ferrostaal, headquartered in Essen, was competing with a U.S. company for a contract to deliver radio monitoring equipment to Nigeria. The U.S. embassy in Berlin supplied Ferrostaal’s U.S. competitor with data from Ferrostaal’s secret bid, according to an embassy cable found in the Wikileaks trove. Details ZDF showed in a copy of the cable included the German company’s offered price (24 million euros) and financing (“5.1 to 7.0 percent for possibly 5 years”). The U.S. company won the contract.

(VEE at shofts ess pee own OJ.)

Das SIGAD-Sharing

Signals intelligence activity designator sharing, i.e. data-collection-site data sharing between intelligence agencies from different countries.

Germany: Spiegel and Süddeutsche Zeitung reported that the German foreign intelligence agency, the Bundesnachrichtendienst or B.N.D., has been sharing on a massive scale communications data collected at e.g. its Bavarian Bad Aibling S.I.G.A.D. site with the U.S.A.’s National Security Agency. The data include mobile phone numbers that the B.N.D. admitted they’ve been passing on to the N.S.A. for years now supposedly under the strict condition that said phone numbers must not be used to kill people (e.g. via phone towers triangulation + drone strike); the B.N.D. also denied that it’s technologically possible to use for location purposes the G.S.M. mobile phone numbers they’ve been passing on (“G.S.M.-Mobilfunknummern sind für eine zielgenaue Lokalisierung nicht geeignet”). The German foreign intelligence agency furthermore is said to have given software it developed to the N.S.A. And the N.S.A. gave the B.N.D. its X-Keyscore software and X-Keyscore software training, including in “behavior detection.”

In an interesting parallel, the Washington Post report on 15 Aug 2013 about an audit of just a few N.S.A. branch offices which found thousands of violations of U.S. privacy rules each year also included a similarly scarcely credible excuse saying phone technology limitations were keeping the N.S.A. from snooping more: “One major problem is largely unpreventable, the audit says, because current operations rely on technology that cannot quickly determine whether a foreign mobile phone has entered the United States.”

England: The N.S.A. has apparently been paying money, such as 100 million pounds, to Britain’s G.C.H.Q., a disproportionately über-representational intelligence-gathering partner for a country of that size. The N.S.A. receives so much communications data from the U.K. that reporters said “it’s almost the same thing” whether G.C.H.Q. or the N.S.A. initially collects it.

(Doss   ZIG odd   CHER ingk.)

“Relevant”

Now might mean “everything,” according to Wall Street Journal reporting about how the U.S.A.’s secret F.I.S.A. court quietly reinterpreted the word “relevant” to “empower vast N.S.A. data-gathering.”

(Ray lay VAUNT.)

Null-Nummer

“A nada number,” zilch, zip, zero. Opposition politicians criticized the 24-hour visit of Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich (C.S.U.) to the U.S.A. on July 12 to discuss N.S.A. spying with the Obama administration, saying Mr. Friedrich let himself be fobbed off with nonexplanations and didn’t realize the seriousness of the issues when he apparently decided to choose government rights over burgher rights. An op-ed in the Süddeutsche Zeitung said democracies can’t have freedom unless individuals in the democracies have freedom and privacy at home, and that this is a time that calls for voices and courage.

(NEWEL new mah.)

Bettgeflüster

“Bed whispers,” German title of the old movie “Pillow Talk” starring Doris Day and Rock Hudson. Ezra Klein’s blog on the Washington Post recently posted about different types of public and private employees who have been caught or might be caught inappropriately making use of the vast phone and internet databases being collected and shared by e.g. the N.S.A.; one of the the least problematic bad uses so far has been to laugh about people’s private pillow talk.

Policemen: Police officers around the U.S.A. were caught using the F.B.I.’s huge N.C.I.C. database to snoop on each other, their significant others or, in one case, women a policeman wanted to cook and eat.

Military: The N.S.A. is part of the military. Fwiw, they said only a small number of people can search their phone records database (Edward Snowden?). A former N.S.A. employee told ABC in 2008 that N.S.A. employees used to listen to overseas soldiers’ phone sex.

Spies: There are fears inside and outside the U.S.A. that intelligence agencies around the world are spying on each other’s domestic populations as a favor to help local agencies circumvent laws protecting their citizens against domestic surveillance by their own governments. As a favor then your country’s communications data would be bulk-hoovered by at least one other country’s intelligence agencies and stored there before being shared with your country’s intelligence agencies…

Mercenaries: If 70% of the U.S.’s intelligence budget has been spent on private contractors in recent years, including on Edward Snowden’s former employer, then tens of thousands of guys must have worked these jobs by now with access to databases and powerful tools.

Telecommunications companies: Ars Technica posted that U.S. intelligence agencies partner with a U.S. telecom company to (somehow) collect phone and internet data from local telecom companies in foreign countries. Providing historical perspective, WaPo wrote that when giant fiber optics network operator Global Crossing went bankrupt in 2002 and was being bid on by firms from Hong Kong and Singapore, the U.S.A.’s F.C.C. held up approval of the deal until systems for U.S. government access to those networks had been agreed to. That model, worked out by reps from Defense, Justice and Homeland Security departments, has now been used by the F.C.C.’s “Team Telecom” for other telecom companies too. Phone companies, phone companies that provide internet connections, cable television companies that provide internet connections and companies that run, maintain or manage copper, fiber optic, satellite and other networks: all have employees and consultants that might also be able to access such data.

Software and content providers: “nine major” U.S. companies including Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple, Yahoo and AOL have been sharing customer communication data with U.S. intelligence agencies; their employees and consultants might also be able to access these data.

News agencies and newspapers: Rupert Murdoch’s phone-hacking scandal in London indicates at least U.K. journalists have succeeded in paying police to acquire the kind of private information stored in these big databases. Such news companies’ employees and consultants, and their subsidiaries’ and parent corporations’ employees and consultants, and anyone capable of tapping journalists’ insecure computers and phones, might access all journalists’ data including those data obtained from police.

(BETT geh FLÜÜ stah.)

Abrisslinie

“Tear line,” used in encrypted NSA emails that contained information acquired by the NSA’s ~2001 to ~2011 bulk internet and telephony surveillance (technically possible but considered unethical in the 1990’s but then authorized by the Bush administration on 04 Oct 2001 as what became the “President’s Surveillance Program,” later “Stellar Wind”). The NSA’s Inspector General wrote in a draft 2009 report that at first the NSA merely responded to FBI and CIA questions by emailing answers that used PSP-obtained information but didn’t say where they’d learned it, and thus the program was “hidden in plain sight.” Later, the FBI and CIA wondered where this information was coming from, so the NSA used a so-called “tear line” to send bulk-surveillance info and “sanitized” info in the same email.

Why only the FBI and CIA are mentioned in this NSA report, over and over, is unclear to me because the US has more such agencies than that. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence’s website currently lists 17 “agencies and organizations,” for example, and those appear to be umbrella organizations as well. During the Bush administration attempts were made by powerful bureaucrats such as Donald Rumsfeld to move intelligence work away from the CIA to the Pentagon. What was created at Defense and how did it morph as the years passed? How was it outsourced beyond government into private contractor companies? And what about “public-private” combinations such as the industry-funded INSA (Intelligence and National Security Alliance), “one of the only business associations in Washington that include current government officials on their board of directors” according to Tim Shorrock in Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (2008).

(Ob riss LIEN ee eh.)

Kontaktketten klarstellen

“Contact chaining analysis,” what the NSA did with the networks of relationships disclosed by the bulk Internet metadata it collected from ~2001 to ~2011, according to a draft of a 2009 report by the NSA’s inspector general.

In case you were wondering, the IG report defined contact chaining as

“the process of building a network graph that models the communication (e-mail, telephony, etc.) patterns of targeted entities (people, organizations, etc.) and their associates from the communications sent or received by the targets.”

“Additional chaining can be performed on the associates’ contacts to determine patterns in the way a network of targets may communicate. Additional degrees of separation from the initial target are referred to as ‘hops.’ For example a direct contact is one hop away from the target. A contact of the direct contact would be described as being 2 hops away from the target. The resulting contact-graph is subsequently analyzed for intelligence and to develop potential investigative leads.”

The inspector general’s report said internet metadata was one of four types of domestic and international data vacuumed up by the NSA between ~2001 and ~2011. With occasional stops and/or restarts of one or the other category due to technical problems or legal concerns on the part of e.g. the FISA court, the NSA acquired: internet metadata, telephone metadata, internet content and telephone content.

(Con TALKED kett en   KLAH shtell en.)

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