German reporting showed “possible inspection targets in Iran,” first on a map, then with satellite images and finally with ground-level photos taken in the plant or perhaps of similar equipment. This was part of ZDF heute journal’s 08 Nov 2013 coverage of the exciting meeting between Iranian diplomats and other countries’ diplomats in Geneva.
Reporter Luten Leinhos’s helpful map featured six areas of nuclear interest in central Iran and two on the coast. He described half of them for viewers:
Natans: biggest nuclear fuel plant, with centrifuges producing up to 3.5% enriched uranium for the Bushehr nuclear reactor but also uranium up to 20% enriched for research purposes; Teheran could offer to stop the 20% enrichment.
Arak: “a heavy-water reactor that produces plutonium as a byproduct, as it were.” Arak isn’t up and running yet. Iran said it may now allow 24-hour video monitoring in the Arak reactor.
Fordo: bunkered up, only satellite photos available; long kept secret. Teheran could offer to let in inspectors and video monitoring.
Parchin: military research complex, absolutely sealed off. Were nuclear tests simulated there?
Update on 11 Nov 2013: Iran and the International Atomic Energy Agency agreed on a road map for inspecting Iranian nuclear sites.
Update on 24 Nov 2013: Küsschen, Umarmung und Schulterklopfen [ceremonious little kisses on the cheek, hugs and clapping one another on the shoulder]. An agreement was reached among foreign ministers from Iran and the U.N. veto-power countries to reduce some economic sanctions against Iran, reduce some nuclear development projects in Iran for now, and to pause Iran’s nuclear weapons program for six months while further arrangements and controls are negotiated and agreed on.
Update on 09 Feb 2014: The International Atomic Energy Agency quietly published a heartwarming announcement: “of the six initial practical measures that were agreed three months ago[,] Iran has taken the initial practical measures that were foreseen.
“Iran and the Agency reached agreement on seven practical measures to be implemented by Iran by 15 May 2014.
“The agreed measures are:
- “Providing mutually agreed relevant information and managed access to the Saghand mine in Yazd;
- “Providing mutually agreed relevant information and managed access to the Ardakan concentration plant;
- “Submission of an updated Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) for the IR-40 Reactor;
- “Taking steps to agree with the Agency on the conclusion of a Safeguards Approach for the IR-40 Reactor;
- “Providing mutually agreed relevant information and arranging for a technical visit to Lashkar Ab’ad Laser Centre;
- “Providing information on source material, which has not reached the composition and purity suitable for fuel fabrication or for being isotopically enriched, including imports of such material and on Iran’s extraction of uranium from phosphates; and
- “Providing information and explanations for the Agency to assess Iran’s stated need or application for the development of Exploding Bridge Wire detonators.”
Update on 17 Apr 2014: Diplomats announced that according to a report by the I.A.E.A. Iran continues to “precisely follow” the agreement reached in November 2013. “Everything is proceeding as planned.” Iran has diluted or converted to uranium oxide 75% of its original 200 kg of highly enriched uranium. The other 50 kg are to be converted or diluted by 20 Jul 2014, and in return western countries will loosen economic sanctions against Iran.
Update on 20 May 2014: I.A.E.A. said they met with Iranian officials to confirm the “good progress made on the seven practical measures that were agreed three months ago.” Five new practical measures have now been agreed (to be done between now and 25 Aug 2014):
- “Exchanging information with the Agency with respect to the allegations related to the initiation of high explosives, including the conduct of large scale high explosives experimentation in Iran.
- “Providing mutually agreed relevant information and explanations related to studies made and/or papers published in Iran in relation to neutron transport and associated modelling and calculations and their alleged application to compressed materials.
- “Providing mutually agreed information and arranging a technical visit to a centrifuge research and development centre.
- “Providing mutually agreed information and managed access to centrifuge assembly workshops, centrifuge rotor production workshops and storage facilities.
- “Concluding the safeguards approach for the IR-40 reactor.”
(MIG lichh ah inz peck tea OWNS TSEAL eh inn ee RON.)